At one point I had a whole blog devoted to collecting information about the telegraph; it's still there, but dormant. Ah, passing interests.
Along the way, I got this suggestion, which I share:
"If you're looking for "telegraph literature" (i.e. stories involving telegraphs) then you should certainly read "The Telegraph Girl" by Anthony Trollope and an accompanying article "The Young Women at the London Telegraph Office" and then Kipling's story "Wireless." "
There is certainly more, which I may add to here from time to time, suggestions welcomed.